General

TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMS OR CAUSES

Generalities

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that, in those who suffer is a handicap in the ability to communicate and socialize causes repetitive behaviors and significantly limits the variety of activities.

The causes of autism are not clear. According to certain theories, the reason for its existence is environmental and genetic elements.

The signs and symptoms of autism are diverse and may differ between patients. The first signs of autism are seen in the early years or even in early childhood.

The diagnosis is made with the help by a team of specialists and involves a range of tests as well as evaluation tests.

Presently, autism is an incurable disorder.

However, there are also supportive therapies that can reduce or even eliminate signs of the illness.

Autism

What is the definition of autism?

Autism is a severe disorder (or disorder) of neurodevelopment that affects those who suffer from it, hinders interaction with others, and can lead to repetitive behavior and dramatically restricts the variety of interests.

So, someone who is autistic is a person who is unable to integrate in with the society and is repetitive in some of its actions, and is deficient in the desire and enthusiasm to engage in exciting activities.

Autism is a disease that is permanent and affects those who suffer, is a consequence that can be seen from an early age.

 

What is a neurodevelopmental disorder?

Neurodevelopmental disorders cause impairments to the development and growth of central nervous systems (encephalon specifically).

Their presence can affect the emotional-behavioral aspect as well as memory, learning and more.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY

According to certain Anglo-Saxon studies, In the United Kingdom, autism affects one person in 100 and has a higher prevalence for males.

 

The most recent indications of the DSM-V

The DSM is also known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is a comprehensive collection of the features of known mental and psychological illnesses and the requirements for diagnosing.

In the most recent version of the DSM (5th edition) that was developed at the end of 2013, the word “autism” is defined as along with autism in the above definition, many different neurodevelopmental issues, including Asperger’s disorder as well as childhood disintegrative disorder, and the pervasive disorder of development.

This inclusion of problems under the umbrella of “autism” is due to the fact that, as per psychiatrists they are, to the greatest extent forms of autism.

This is definitely new, as prior to that penultimate version (DSM-IV) disorders like Asperger’s syndrome or childhood disintegrative disorders were distinct pathological entities in their individual cases.

 

SYMBOLE OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISEASE

To identify autism, psychologists and psychiatrists typically refer to it as “autism spectrum disorder.”

The term “spectrum” means the broad range of manifestations and indicators that autism could cause, as well as their significant range of intensity.

The Reasons

Researchers and doctors have yet to determine the exact cause of autism.

According to certain theories, the development the neurodevelopment disorder could be linked to genetic elements or specific environmental factors.

 

GENETIC FACTORS THE GENETIC FACTORS:

The possibility that autism could be genetically based is derived from a variety of evidences:

 

The fact that the majority of individuals with autism have, or been related to relatives who had similar issues. In some cases the level of kinship between people is extremely high (for instance for instance, when it comes to twins) and is not a reason to doubt the idea for genetic reasons.

The fact that certain people with autism have certain genetic disorders, such as the following: fragile X syndrome Williams syndrome Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome.

Certain studies have proven that there are genes that are involved in the development of the brain as well as controlling all brain functions affected in the case of autism.

Presently, it’s impossible to prove an existence connection between specific genes in Human Genome and Autism. There is no evidence from science that actually has established with certainty that there exists a genetic link between genetic changes (mutations) as well as the presence of any kind of autism.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL Factors: The HYPOTHESES

An environmental element can be any situation, incident or behavior that affects the lives of individuals in a particular way.

Based on the theories of researchers and doctors those who study the subject, the environmental factors that may influence the existence of autism include:

Premature birth. The term “premature birth” means that it is within three weeks prior to the forty-fifth week in pregnancy.

The mother’s drinking of alcohol or other drugs (such such as sodium valproate) during pregnancy.

Mothers are exposed to air pollution.

Infections of the mother caused by mothers during the course of pregnancy.

The advanced age of parents at the moment of conception.

The evidence from science isn’t enough. It is for this reason that there are numerous experiments taking place that aim to establish the relationship between these points and the autism condition.

Male INDIVIDUALS ARE IN SPECIAL CONDITION RISK

According to the article, autistic people typically are males.

According to some studies The ratio of males to females in autism is 4:1.

So, the probability for males to be affected by autism is four times more when compared with the female population.

 

Myths to DISPEL

At one point it was speculated that autism could be a result of or be related to:

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MPR vaccine).

Exposition to the thiomersal (or thimerosal) as a vaccine preservative also used in the production of ophthalmological disinfectants antivenom serums, immunoglobulins tattoo ink.

In the past 10 years, numerous studies have demonstrated that there isn’t any connection between the two circumstances mentioned above and autism.

Signs and Complications

An autistic person may exhibit the first signs and symptoms of the disorder at the age of 2 to 3 years.

However, autism is typically a disorder that manifests immediately, and without a doubt, at the start of school. That means that the ill person who is struggling with social interaction and interaction is in contact every day with a lot of other individuals.

The symptoms of autism are very variable, both regards to the intensity of the symptoms as well as in terms of severity.

Therefore, every autistic patient is a distinct case distinct from the rest.

 

Interaction with COMMUNCATIVE SPHERE and OTHERS

For a child who has autism, the signs and indications of autism that signal difficulties in communicating and interaction with other people include:

 

A delay in language development.

The tendency to avoid spoken language.

The repeated repetition of an entire set of phrases or words.

A tone of voice that is monotonous and unison as if they lack the ability to adapt to the circumstances in front of you.

The tendency to translate as literal everything that is said and an inability to discern a sarcastic or humorous tone voice or phrase.

The habit of communicating with simple words instead of sentences.

Failure to respond to an individual’s pronunciation, or even to the sound of their name, or that of others. Due to this peculiarity, autistic people can appear to have hearing impairments.

However, in reality, they are nearly always normal.

A total lack of interest (disinterest that at times, is almost the level of annoyance) toward “cuddles” and tender gestures, made by parents and others.

A preference to remain and playing with a friend.

The tendency to react in anger or in a violent manner regardless of the reason.

Eye contact is a tendency that we avoid.

Failure to use facial expressions and gestures to convey messages.

Unhappy even in settings that are generally enjoyable for friends for example, birthday events.

There is very little, if any desire to make friends with their friends.

The tendency to be disruptive.

Certain of these issues, such as, for instance delays in language development or a desire to play by yourself – can be detected in the early years of the age of preschool.

Autism Children

BEHAVIORAL SPHERE

The most typical abnormal behavior of children with autism include:

 

Making repetitive movements like moving back and forth, as well as flapping the hands.

Making use of toys in ways different that their intended purpose.

Being a strong reliance upon certain routines, that any change to these habits can be a major tension.

Feel strongly attracted or a distinct attraction to certain foods, based on the color of their food or how they are prepared.

The attraction to smell objects, people and toys for no reason.

A few hobbies however, they are being a manic. It is quite normal for autistic people to have a specific attraction to particular objects or activities and to devote the majority of their time with these things.

Show a specific sensitivity to bright light or certain sounds, or even physical contact (even when it’s in no way painful).

Always be in motion.

In the autism spectrum there are those with less than average IQ and poor skills in learning as well as those with regular intelligence levels, and other people – though this isn’t a large percentage that have special talents in the fields of math or art.

Motor Skill

Many people with autism exhibit difficulties with coordination and awkwardness in their movements.

 

SYMPTOMS In ADULTHOOD

In later life, the issues of an autistic person could improve – in certain instances, even in a noticeable way , or be unaffected or worsen.

 

When should you seek medical advice?

Based on the opinions of medical professionals parents, they should send their child to a specialist for exams if

 

At the age of 6 months at 6 months, the child isn’t smiling or shows any sign of happiness or joy.

At the age of 9 months Does not make any sounds or make any particular facial expressions.

At the age of 12 months, it is not speak.

At the age of 14 months at 14 months, the baby does not make any kind of return gestures, like making gestures, reaching out, etc.

At 16 months old and still does not speak.

At the age of 24 months is unable to speak in two-word sentences.

ASSOCIATED DISORDERS AS WELL AS PATHOLOGIES

Because of reasons that remain undetermined, autism is frequently linked to other disorders, like certain learning disorders (dyslexia dyscalculia. ) as well as Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as Tourette’s Syndrome epilepsy, anxiety obsessive compulsive disorder, dyspraxia, bipolar disorder, depression, sleep disorders and tuberous sclerosis.

Diagnosis

The process used to diagnose to determine if you have autism is a collaboration of experts, including psychologists, psychiatrists, pediatric neurologists, and specialists in language issues as well as a series of tests for analysis and evaluation.

Important, for an accurate diagnosis of autism is the review with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the comparison of the criteria in it and the findings that have been made by various analysis and tests for evaluation.

There is currently no test specific to diagnose autism. This is due to obvious reasons. It makes it difficult to determine if a person is autistic or not.

In the majority of patients, the diagnosis should be made at that of a schoolage child (6-8 year olds).

The diagnosis of autism for adults is extremely uncommon.

Analyse and TESTING

Usually, assessment analyses and tests comprise:

A non-objective examination can be used to determine the specific nature of the symptoms. For instance the child who does not respond to their name could be experiencing an undiagnosed hearing problem. By conducting an objective test doctors can clarify this as well as other concerns.

A study of the DNA profile to determine whether the person is suffering from any genetic condition that is not listed previously (fragile condition known as X syndrome Rett syndrome, and so on. ).

A specific test that tests the social interactions, communication skills and behaviour.

In this kind of test it is crucial to evaluate what is being observed by the person who is conducting the test to what was observed by school and parents at the time of the test.

A test that is specialized to determine the level of development in a language.

A neurological examthat evaluates the mental health of the patient.

A questionnaire for parents to determine if there are any family members there are (or were) relatives who have disorders that are that are similar to the one under examination.

Importance of a PERFECT DIAGNOSIS

The ability to accurately identify the traits of autism on a case-by-case basis is crucial, since it permits the specialist who is in charge of the particular patient, to determine the most suitable treatment.

Treatment

There is no treatment for autism that can cure it.

However, in the last few decades doctors and specialists in neurodevelopmental disorders have created treatment options that are supportive and have the aim of to reduce the issues caused by autism and to increase the potential of the patients.

These therapies require many hours of therapy per week in conjunction with a pediatric neuroologist and a specialist in mental illness and a specialist in learning disabilities as well as a speech therapist and occupational therapy specialists.

A FEW EXAMPLES of TREATMENTS

Treatments for support are offered, including:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy. It’s a kind of psychotherapy. It is designed to teach patients how to recognize and conquer difficult (or inactive) behavior.

When receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment An autistic person should lessen the severity of his or her behavioral issues (e.g. reduce his or her delusions , or repeated gestures) and develop new communication skills.

Educational interventions. These are planned activities with the aim to develop specific skills or abilities.

For those with autism, interventions in education aim to enhance communication skills as well as social skills and behaviour.

Family therapy. It is a kind of psychotherapy which involves all the family members and the person being treated.

In short, it takes into account the notion that siblings, parents and other relatives who are close to them are essential in supporting their loved ones in the course of treatment planned for him.

To get the best outcomes from family therapy it is beneficial for families to understand the features of the disease and learn how best to aid those affected by it.

Do medical devices exist?

Despite the numerous researches conducted regarding the subject, currently there isn’t a specific medication to treat autism.

However, it is to be noted that at certain points psychiatrists and psychologists turn to medications to treat specific symptoms or ailments.

The possible drugs to use for autism, you can choose to use melatonin for sleep disorders as well as antidepressants (serotonin reuptake inhibitors) for epilepsy, anticonvulsants, for depression and methylphenidate to treat ADHD and antipsychotics to treat aggression or anxiety that is excessive.

It is important to note that the above drugs can only be used under the supervision of a doctor, since they could cause severe side effects for those who take them.

SUPPORT ADULT SUPPORT

Adults with autism may benefit from the same support treatment options that are available to young autistic people as well as a wide range of aids to help those with autism, such as in gaining employment or gaining independence.

Prognosis

While autism is a permanent illness, the treatment options currently available can yield fantastic outcomes and significantly improve an autism patient’s challenges.

Experts and doctors believe that treatments are more effective when they begin.

Prevention

Presently the prevention of autism isn’t possible.

TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMS OR CAUSES

Generalities

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that, in those who suffer is a handicap in the ability to communicate and socialize causes repetitive behaviors and significantly limits the variety of activities.

The causes of autism are not clear. According to certain theories, the reason for its existence is environmental and genetic elements.

The signs and symptoms of autism are diverse and may differ between patients. The first signs of autism are seen in the early years or even in early childhood.

The diagnosis is made with the help by a team of specialists and involves a range of tests as well as evaluation tests.

Presently, autism is an incurable disorder.

However, there are also supportive therapies that can reduce or even eliminate signs of the illness.

Autism

What is the definition of autism?

Autism is a severe disorder (or disorder) of neurodevelopment that affects those who suffer from it, hinders interaction with others, and can lead to repetitive behavior and dramatically restricts the variety of interests.

So, someone who is autistic is a person who is unable to integrate in with the society and is repetitive in some of its actions, and is deficient in the desire and enthusiasm to engage in exciting activities.

Autism is a disease that is permanent and affects those who suffer, is a consequence that can be seen from an early age.

 

What is a neurodevelopmental disorder?

Neurodevelopmental disorders cause impairments to the development and growth of central nervous systems (encephalon specifically).

Their presence can affect the emotional-behavioral aspect as well as memory, learning and more.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY

According to certain Anglo-Saxon studies, In the United Kingdom, autism affects one person in 100 and has a higher prevalence for males.

 

The most recent indications of the DSM-V

The DSM is also known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is a comprehensive collection of the features of known mental and psychological illnesses and the requirements for diagnosing.

In the most recent version of the DSM (5th edition) that was developed at the end of 2013, the word “autism” is defined as along with autism in the above definition, many different neurodevelopmental issues, including Asperger’s disorder as well as childhood disintegrative disorder, and the pervasive disorder of development.

This inclusion of problems under the umbrella of “autism” is due to the fact that, as per psychiatrists they are, to the greatest extent forms of autism.

This is definitely new, as prior to that penultimate version (DSM-IV) disorders like Asperger’s syndrome or childhood disintegrative disorders were distinct pathological entities in their individual cases.

 

SYMBOLE OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISEASE

To identify autism, psychologists and psychiatrists typically refer to it as “autism spectrum disorder.”

The term “spectrum” means the broad range of manifestations and indicators that autism could cause, as well as their significant range of intensity.

The Reasons

Researchers and doctors have yet to determine the exact cause of autism.

According to certain theories, the development the neurodevelopment disorder could be linked to genetic elements or specific environmental factors.

 

GENETIC FACTORS THE GENETIC FACTORS:

The possibility that autism could be genetically based is derived from a variety of evidences:

 

The fact that the majority of individuals with autism have, or been related to relatives who had similar issues. In some cases the level of kinship between people is extremely high (for instance for instance, when it comes to twins) and is not a reason to doubt the idea for genetic reasons.

The fact that certain people with autism have certain genetic disorders, such as the following: fragile X syndrome Williams syndrome Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome.

Certain studies have proven that there are genes that are involved in the development of the brain as well as controlling all brain functions affected in the case of autism.

Presently, it’s impossible to prove an existence connection between specific genes in Human Genome and Autism. There is no evidence from science that actually has established with certainty that there exists a genetic link between genetic changes (mutations) as well as the presence of any kind of autism.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL Factors: The HYPOTHESES

An environmental element can be any situation, incident or behavior that affects the lives of individuals in a particular way.

Based on the theories of researchers and doctors those who study the subject, the environmental factors that may influence the existence of autism include:

Premature birth. The term “premature birth” means that it is within three weeks prior to the forty-fifth week in pregnancy.

The mother’s drinking of alcohol or other drugs (such such as sodium valproate) during pregnancy.

Mothers are exposed to air pollution.

Infections of the mother caused by mothers during the course of pregnancy.

The advanced age of parents at the moment of conception.

The evidence from science isn’t enough. It is for this reason that there are numerous experiments taking place that aim to establish the relationship between these points and the autism condition.

Male INDIVIDUALS ARE IN SPECIAL CONDITION RISK

According to the article, autistic people typically are males.

According to some studies The ratio of males to females in autism is 4:1.

So, the probability for males to be affected by autism is four times more when compared with the female population.

 

Myths to DISPEL

At one point it was speculated that autism could be a result of or be related to:

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MPR vaccine).

Exposition to the thiomersal (or thimerosal) as a vaccine preservative also used in the production of ophthalmological disinfectants antivenom serums, immunoglobulins tattoo ink.

In the past 10 years, numerous studies have demonstrated that there isn’t any connection between the two circumstances mentioned above and autism.

Signs and Complications

An autistic person may exhibit the first signs and symptoms of the disorder at the age of 2 to 3 years.

However, autism is typically a disorder that manifests immediately, and without a doubt, at the start of school. That means that the ill person who is struggling with social interaction and interaction is in contact every day with a lot of other individuals.

The symptoms of autism are very variable, both regards to the intensity of the symptoms as well as in terms of severity.

Therefore, every autistic patient is a distinct case distinct from the rest.

 

Interaction with COMMUNCATIVE SPHERE and OTHERS

For a child who has autism, the signs and indications of autism that signal difficulties in communicating and interaction with other people include:

 

A delay in language development.

The tendency to avoid spoken language.

The repeated repetition of an entire set of phrases or words.

A tone of voice that is monotonous and unison as if they lack the ability to adapt to the circumstances in front of you.

The tendency to translate as literal everything that is said and an inability to discern a sarcastic or humorous tone voice or phrase.

The habit of communicating with simple words instead of sentences.

Failure to respond to an individual’s pronunciation, or even to the sound of their name, or that of others. Due to this peculiarity, autistic people can appear to have hearing impairments.

However, in reality, they are nearly always normal.

A total lack of interest (disinterest that at times, is almost the level of annoyance) toward “cuddles” and tender gestures, made by parents and others.

A preference to remain and playing with a friend.

The tendency to react in anger or in a violent manner regardless of the reason.

Eye contact is a tendency that we avoid.

Failure to use facial expressions and gestures to convey messages.

Unhappy even in settings that are generally enjoyable for friends for example, birthday events.

There is very little, if any desire to make friends with their friends.

The tendency to be disruptive.

Certain of these issues, such as, for instance delays in language development or a desire to play by yourself – can be detected in the early years of the age of preschool.

 

Autism Children

BEHAVIORAL SPHERE

The most typical abnormal behavior of children with autism include:

 

Making repetitive movements like moving back and forth, as well as flapping the hands.

Making use of toys in ways different that their intended purpose.

Being a strong reliance upon certain routines, that any change to these habits can be a major tension.

Feel strongly attracted or a distinct attraction to certain foods, based on the color of their food or how they are prepared.

The attraction to smell objects, people and toys for no reason.

A few hobbies however, they are being a manic. It is quite normal for autistic people to have a specific attraction to particular objects or activities and to devote the majority of their time with these things.

Show a specific sensitivity to bright light or certain sounds, or even physical contact (even when it’s in no way painful).

Always be in motion.

In the autism spectrum there are those with less than average IQ and poor skills in learning as well as those with regular intelligence levels, and other people – though this isn’t a large percentage that have special talents in the fields of math or art.

Motor Skill

Many people with autism exhibit difficulties with coordination and awkwardness in their movements.

 

SYMPTOMS In ADULTHOOD

In later life, the issues of an autistic person could improve – in certain instances, even in a noticeable way , or be unaffected or worsen.

 

When should you seek medical advice?

Based on the opinions of medical professionals parents, they should send their child to a specialist for exams if

 

At the age of 6 months at 6 months, the child isn’t smiling or shows any sign of happiness or joy.

At the age of 9 months Does not make any sounds or make any particular facial expressions.

At the age of 12 months, it is not speak.

At the age of 14 months at 14 months, the baby does not make any kind of return gestures, like making gestures, reaching out, etc.

At 16 months old and still does not speak.

At the age of 24 months is unable to speak in two-word sentences.

ASSOCIATED DISORDERS AS WELL AS PATHOLOGIES

Because of reasons that remain undetermined, autism is frequently linked to other disorders, like certain learning disorders (dyslexia dyscalculia. ) as well as Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as Tourette’s Syndrome epilepsy, anxiety obsessive compulsive disorder, dyspraxia, bipolar disorder, depression, sleep disorders and tuberous sclerosis.

Diagnosis

The process used to diagnose to determine if you have autism is a collaboration of experts, including psychologists, psychiatrists, pediatric neurologists, and specialists in language issues as well as a series of tests for analysis and evaluation.

Important, for an accurate diagnosis of autism is the review with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the comparison of the criteria in it and the findings that have been made by various analysis and tests for evaluation.

There is currently no test specific to diagnose autism. This is due to obvious reasons. It makes it difficult to determine if a person is autistic or not.

In the majority of patients, the diagnosis should be made at that of a schoolage child (6-8 year olds).

The diagnosis of autism for adults is extremely uncommon.

Analyse and TESTING

Usually, assessment analyses and tests comprise:

A non-objective examination can be used to determine the specific nature of the symptoms. For instance the child who does not respond to their name could be experiencing an undiagnosed hearing problem. By conducting an objective test doctors can clarify this as well as other concerns.

A study of the DNA profile to determine whether the person is suffering from any genetic condition that is not listed previously (fragile condition known as X syndrome Rett syndrome, and so on. ).

A specific test that tests the social interactions, communication skills and behaviour.

In this kind of test it is crucial to evaluate what is being observed by the person who is conducting the test to what was observed by school and parents at the time of the test.

A test that is specialized to determine the level of development in a language.

A neurological examthat evaluates the mental health of the patient.

A questionnaire for parents to determine if there are any family members there are (or were) relatives who have disorders that are that are similar to the one under examination.

Importance of a PERFECT DIAGNOSIS

The ability to accurately identify the traits of autism on a case-by-case basis is crucial, since it permits the specialist who is in charge of the particular patient, to determine the most suitable treatment.

Treatment

There is no treatment for autism that can cure it.

However, in the last few decades doctors and specialists in neurodevelopmental disorders have created treatment options that are supportive and have the aim of to reduce the issues caused by autism and to increase the potential of the patients.

These therapies require many hours of therapy per week in conjunction with a pediatric neuroologist and a specialist in mental illness and a specialist in learning disabilities as well as a speech therapist and occupational therapy specialists.

A FEW EXAMPLES of TREATMENTS

Treatments for support are offered, including:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy. It’s a kind of psychotherapy. It is designed to teach patients how to recognize and conquer difficult (or inactive) behavior.

When receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment An autistic person should lessen the severity of his or her behavioral issues (e.g. reduce his or her delusions , or repeated gestures) and develop new communication skills.

Educational interventions. These are planned activities with the aim to develop specific skills or abilities.

For those with autism, interventions in education aim to enhance communication skills as well as social skills and behaviour.

Family therapy. It is a kind of psychotherapy which involves all the family members and the person being treated.

In short, it takes into account the notion that siblings, parents and other relatives who are close to them are essential in supporting their loved ones in the course of treatment planned for him.

To get the best outcomes from family therapy it is beneficial for families to understand the features of the disease and learn how best to aid those affected by it.

Do medical devices exist?

Despite the numerous researches conducted regarding the subject, currently there isn’t a specific medication to treat autism.

However, it is to be noted that at certain points psychiatrists and psychologists turn to medications to treat specific symptoms or ailments.

The possible drugs to use for autism, you can choose to use melatonin for sleep disorders as well as antidepressants (serotonin reuptake inhibitors) for epilepsy, anticonvulsants, for depression and methylphenidate to treat ADHD and antipsychotics to treat aggression or anxiety that is excessive.

It is important to note that the above drugs can only be used under the supervision of a doctor, since they could cause severe side effects for those who take them.

SUPPORT ADULT SUPPORT

Adults with autism may benefit from the same support treatment options that are available to young autistic people as well as a wide range of aids to help those with autism, such as in gaining employment or gaining independence.

Prognosis

While autism is a permanent illness, the treatment options currently available can yield fantastic outcomes and significantly improve an autism patient’s challenges.

Experts and doctors believe that treatments are more effective when they begin.

Prevention

Presently the prevention of autism isn’t possible.

 

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